Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies (video) | Khan Academy
Looking for online definition of organelle in the Medical Dictionary? organelle explanation free. What is organelle? Meaning of organelle medical term. Date of Birth: December 22, in Göttingen, Germany. Education: definition of candidate Ca2+ sensors for the fast and slow components of neurotransmitter release. Südhof, T.C. () Synaptic vesicles: an organelle comes of age. 2) Organelles carry out specific processes involving chemical the name of an organelle and the name of a system in the human body that have similar functions. Their names, the date they discovered something, and their.
So it's the cytosol and the organelles and the stuff inside the organelles is the cytoplasm. So cytoplasm is everything inside of the cell. Cytosol is just the fluid that's between the organelles. So anyway, the free ribosome over here, this translation is good for proteins used within the cell itself. The proteins can then float around the cytosol and used in whichever way is appropriate. But how do you get protein outside of the cell, or even inside the cellular membrane?
Not within it, within the cell, but embedded in the cell membrane or outside of the cell itself. And we know that cells communicate in all sorts of different ways and they produce proteins for other cells or for use in the bloodstream, or whatever it might be. And that's what we're going to focus on in this video. So contiguous with this what's called a perinuclear space right over here, so the space between these two membranes-- So you have this perinuclear space between the inner and outer nuclear membrane.
Let me just label that. That's the inner nuclear membrane. That's the outer nuclear membrane.
You could continue this outer nuclear membrane, and you get into these kind of flaps and folds and bulges. And this right over here is considered a separate organelle. So you get this thing that looks like this, and I'll just do it the best that I can draw it. And this right over here is called the endoplasmic reticulum. So this right here is endoplasmic reticulum, which I've always thought would be a good name for a band.
And the endoplasmic reticulum is key for starting to produce and then later on package proteins that are either embedded in the cellular membrane or used outside of the cell itself. So how does that happen? Well, the endoplasmic reticulum really has two regions. It has the rough endoplasmic reticulum. And the rough endoplasmic reticulum has a bunch of ribosomes.
So that's a free ribosome right over here. This is an attached ribosome. These are ribosomes that are attached to the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum.
So this region where you have attached ribosomes right over here, that is the rough endoplasmic reticulum. I'll call it the rough ER for short. Perhaps an even better name for a band. And then there's another region, which is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
And the role that this plays in protein synthesis, or at least getting proteins ready for the outside of the cell, is you can have messenger RNA-- let me do that in that lighter green color-- you can have messenger RNA find one of these ribosomes associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. And as the protein is translated, it won't be translated inside the cytosol.
It'll be translated on the other side of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Or you could say on the inside of it, in the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Let me make that a little bit-- let me draw that a little bit better.
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So let's say that this right over here, that right over here is the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. And then as a protein, or as a mRNA is being translated into protein, the ribosome can attach. And let's say that this right over here is the mRNA that is being translated.
Let's say it's going in that direction right over here. Here is the membrane of the ER. This right over here-- and actually, the way I've drawn it right over here, this is just one bilipid layer.
So let me just draw it like this. I could do it like this. And this is actually, this bilipid layer is continuous. It's continuous with the outer nuclear membrane. So let me just make it like that so you get the picture. And then at some point in the translation process, the protein can be spit out on the inside.
As it's being translated, it can be spit out on the inside of the endoplasmic reticulum.Yahoo Answers Cringe: Vol. 1
So this is the lumen. This is the ER lumen right over here. So we're inside the endoplasmic reticulum here. Here we're outside in the cytosol.
Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.
So that way you get the protein now, inside the ER. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum, and it can travel through it. And at some point, it can bud off. So let's say, imagine the protein is right over here. And the smooth endoplasmic reticulum has many functions, and I won't get into all the depth of how it's involved. But at some point that protein can bud off.
So let me draw a budding off protein. So let's say this is the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. And a protein, let's say, ends up right over here. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis.
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Likewise, other diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a very important role include neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes or cancer. The work by Yu-Ting Wu, Shi-Bei Wu, and Yau-Huei Wei Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan  focuses on the aforementioned mitochondrial diseases with special attention to the compensatory mechanisms that prompt mitochondria to produce more energy even under mitochondrial defect-conditions.
These compensatory mechanisms include the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis and overexpression of respiratory complex subunits, as well as metabolic shift to glycolysis. The pathways observed to be related to mitochondrial biogenesis as a compensatory adaptation to the energetic deficits in mitochondrial diseases are described PGC- 1, Sirtuins, AMPK. Other strategies currently used include the addition of antioxidant supplements to the diet dietary supplementation with antioxidants such as L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10,MitoQ10 and other mitochondria-targeted antioxidants,N-acetylcysteine NACvitamin C, vitamin E vitamin K1, vitamin B, sodium pyruvate or -lipoic acid.
As aforementioned, other diseases do not have exclusively a mitochondrial origin but they might have an important mitochondrial component both on their onset and on their development.
This is the case of type 2 diabetes or neurodegenerative diseases. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a peripheral insulin resistance accompanied by an increased secretion of insulin as a compensatory system. Although this hypothesis is not free of controversy due to the uncertainty on the sequence of events during type 2 diabetes onset, e. Thus restoring oxidative capacity by increasing mitochondrial mass appears as a suitable strategy to treat insulin resistance.
The effort made by researchers trying to understand the signaling pathways mediating mitochondrial biogenesis has uncovered new potential pharmacological targets and opens the perspectives for the design of suitable treatments for insulin resistance.
In addition some of the current used strategies could be used to treat insulin resistance such as lifestyle interventions caloric restriction and endurance exercise and pharmacological interventions thiazolidinediones and other PPAR agonists, resveratrol and other calorie restriction mimetics, AMPK activators, ERR activators.
Mitochondrial biogenesis is of special importance in modern neurochemistry because of the broad spectrum of human diseases arising from defects in mitochondrial ion and ROS homeostasis, energy production and morphology . This work reviews different strategies to enhance mitochondrial bioenergetics in order to ameliorate the neurodegenerative process, with an emphasis on clinical trials reports that indicate their potential.
Whereas a modest expression of this transcriptional co-activator results in positive effects, a moderate to substantial overexpession may have deleterious consequences.