Information about dating customs in different cultures and beliefs

Culture of France - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family

information about dating customs in different cultures and beliefs

Culture of Ireland - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, Another important cultural minority are Irish "Travellers," who have .. in the development and design of information technologies and financial support services. local support is sustained through ties of marriage, religion and church, education. These are some of the ways teens date in other countries of the world. Afghanistan. Dating is rare in Afghanistan because most marriages are arranged by. Culture of France - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, France has a low population density compared to other countries in Western Europe. . Buildings dating from the period of state building in the Third Republic are can add more information about the jobs people have and about the way they.

France takes a highly assimilationist approach to its immigrant populations. The social position of Beurs the children of North African immigrants is an ongoing issue. The population is divided by social class, political party affiliation, generation, ethnicity, and region. Having had a significant rural population well into the twentieth century, the country continues to be marked by a rural-urban split. The French often refer to their nation as a hexagon to describe its six-sided shape, and this term is also a symbol for the country.

Metropolitan France has an area of oversquare milessquare kilometersmaking it the largest Western European nation.

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It covers 5 percent of the European continent. Paris is the capital and cultural center, long dominating the rest of the nation. The older provinces, now reconfigured in what are officially called regions, have played an important role in the nation's history.

There are currently twenty-two regions. These DOMs operate primarily as departments within the national system. There are two territorial collectives: Mayotte and Saint Pierre-et-Miquelon. While tied to the mainland of Europe, the country is open to the Atlantic to the west. It also has coasts on the Mediterranean Sea to the south and the English Channel to the north.

France has a large range of terrain and a varied climate and geography. The major mountain ranges are the Alps in the east and the Pyrenees in the southwest. Each forms a natural boundary with other nations. The Massif Central is a large mountainous plateau in the central area, which includes the ancient volcanoes of the Auvergne region.

While most of the country is in a temperate zone, the Mediterranean area is considered to have a subtropical climate. Inthe population was 58, France has a low population density compared to other countries in Western Europe. In an attempt to keep the population up, family allowances are given to each family per child, with no income restriction.

There is much population mobility from urban to rural areas and from region to France region. The population has more than doubled since the mid-nineteenth century, when it was The post—World War II period saw fertility increases in the French version of the baby boom, but the birthrate began to drop in the early s.

Migration has added to the population. At the turn of the twentieth century and after World War I, migration accounted for half the total population growth. The official language is French, which is by far the majority language, having been imposed on the regional populations since the nineteenth century.

Regional languages and dialects such as Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Basque, Alsatian, and Flemish are still in use, and some are taught in regional schools. The law of 11 January permitted the teaching of regional languages in regions in which they were in use. The most recent update of national language policy regarding education came inpermitting the teaching of regional languages at the primary and secondary levels.

In all cases, this is voluntary for pupils. The nation historically has been divided into two linguistic regions: National identity is closely identified with the French language. Inthe government instituted a further safeguard by establishing a commission on the French language whose role is to discourage borrowings from English and franglais the combination of the two languages.

The Toubon law of mandates that French be spoken in all official, public spheres of life. The French state also has played a role in the protection of global francophonie. Numerous national symbols are associated with the French Revolution, which established the nation as a democratic republic at the end of the eighteenth century.

They were further reinforced during the Third Republic at the turn of the twentieth century. Known as the tricoleur, the flag is blue, white, and red. White is associated with monarchy, red with the republic, and blue with Charlemagne, Clovis, and other early rulers. La Marseillaise became the official national anthem in It was written in Strasbourg in but became associated with Marseille when troops from that city entered Paris singing it on 30 July It was an important rallying song during the First Republic but was not used on official occasions again until the Third Republic.

The Gallic rooster le coq gaulois became associated with the nation during the Renaissance. It was used at first as a royal symbol but during the revolution came to stand for the identity of the nation. Used variously over time and sometimes associated with the figure of Liberty or Marianne, the rooster came to be known as a symbol of the nation during World War I. Today it is often used by sports teams. Marianne is a symbol of the republic as a motherland and stands for the rallying cry of "liberty, equality, fraternity.

There are multiple ways of depicting this figure. Statues and images have portrayed Marianne as wearing a helmet and at other times the Phrygian bonnet; during the Third Republic, she began to be seen wearing a crown of ripe wheat. Since the nineteenth century, mayors have commissioned a sculpture of Marianne for their town halls.

Now these busts depict popular models, the first of whom was Brigitte Bardot. The most recent model, chosen in after much discussion and debate, is the actress Laetitia Casta. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. The emergence of the modern nation took place over several centuries and resulted from a combination of the cultural influences of Gauls, Romans, and Franks.

France was inhabited mainly by the Gauls, a Celtic-language group, when the Roman conquest of the territory began in the first century B. The Gallo-Roman period ended when the Frankish peoples began to enter the territory from the Germanic east during the fifth century, led by Clovis.

The term "France" comes from the Franks and has had three historical meanings. The Treaty of Verdun in established the kingdom of "Western Francia" when land was divided between the heirs of Charlemagne's son, Louis the Pious.

The medieval period was one of political fragmentation even as the state administrative bureaucracy grew. The Church supported the various monarchs, who claimed divine rule. After a long series of wars, France achieved political unity in the sixteenth century under Louis XIV.

French became the official language, replacing Latin in official documents, in The revolution of established the First Republic and abolished the monarchy. Attempts to form the First and Second Empires by Napoleon and his nephew eventually were over-turned by the Third Republic — This period involved a heightened sense of national identity, with a return to the republican values of the revolution. It was also a period of heightened colonial expansion into Africa and Asia. A Fourth Republic was reconstituted after liberation at the end of the war, and this led to the current Fifth Republic, whose first president was Charles de Gaulle, elected in Le Puy lies in the volcanic mountains of south-central France.

France experienced a period of economic prosperity after World War II known as the "thirty glorious years. The events of May marked a crisis in national identity as workers and students agitated for a more open and equal society. National identity is connected to notions of citizenship, which were established during the revolution. The original criteria included factors such as gender, place of birth, age, and amount of property.

Citizenship currently depends on proof of parentage and residence. The national identity is based on several factors, including a concept of shared ancestry coming from the Gallic and Frankish past and territorial roots in the countryside, a shared national language and culture, and the ideals of the revolution. It has also been shaped by religious conflicts between Catholics, Protestants, and Jews and by religious versus secular influences on government, especially in the realm of education.

Current national identity is primarily an invention of the Third Republic and has been shaken by various events in recent history. The degree to which a coherent national identity has existed is debatable despite the assimilationist policies of the government.

Linguistic unity was achieved less than a century ago, and regional languages and cultural practices persist. The growth of the European Union EU and the influx of immigrants eventually will lead to a revised view of what it means to be French.

An important element of national identity is the identity card. Each person on French soil must carry on his or her person a card or document that demonstrates citizenship or another legal status, such as a visa or EU passport.

The police have the right to stop anyone at any time to demand to see these documents. In a multiethnic state, there are two major types of ethnic group identity: Conflict between the centralized state and regional groups such as the Corsicans, Bretons, and Basques heightened toward the end of the twentieth century, when political autonomy became a major movement. Corsica has won the right to limited administrative autonomy. These immigrants have come from various nations.

The country has offered political asylum to peoples such as Cambodians and Czechs. One of the most significant conflicts has been in the area of religious freedom for Islamic groups. The "scarf affair" ofin which three Muslim girls were expelled from high school because they refused to take off their head scarves, drew attention to the conflict between the secular state school system and the religious beliefs of immigrants.

Spain - Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space There has long been a dichotomy between Paris and the rest of the nation or between Paris and the provinces. Paris is by far the major urban center, with Lyon following. Not until the s did the urban population surpass the rural population.

Four-fifths of the population now lives in urban areas. More than half the urban population lives in suburbs, however. A movement of population back to rural areas, if not back to farming, has existed since the s. Only 3 percent of the population is employed in agriculture. It is headquartered in Paris, with twenty-three regional areas.

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Paris is now linked through the English Channel tunnel to the United Kingdom. Several major highways built during the last few decades have improved movement by car. Architecture ranges from the grand works of the powerful in the cities, such as the Versailles palace and the new National Library in Paris, to the vernacular architecture of rural areas. Buildings dating from the period of state building in the Third Republic are particularly symbolic of nationalism.

The architecture of public primary schools built at the turn of the century in small towns and villages symbolizes the presence of the nation-state at the local level. These buildings also house the mayor's office. Churches symbolize the power of the Catholic Church, from Notre Dame in Paris to the village churches whose steeples once dominated the countryside.

Vernacular rural architecture varies from region to region, reflecting climate, family forms, and cultural values. Just as each local region had a local dialect, it had its own style of barns and houses. The use of space in rural areas varies considerably. Across the country, however, there is a strong emphasis on privacy within the walls of the house or foyer. Personal space and intimacy are connected, and close friends and relatives have much closeness and physical contact.

Acquaintances and intimates are distinguished, and a high degree of formality is used with acquaintances. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Food plays a major role in the country's social life. Wine and cheese are sources of national pride and reflect regional differences.

Meals are ritualized, and full of social and cultural meaning. There are also political aspects to the meaning of food. For instance, there has recently been much concern about the quality of "engineered" food and a rejection of foods that have been genetically altered. Another recent concern has been la vache folle mad cow disease ; the French have rejected the importation of English beef, which has been a major issue in the EU. Breton girls in costumes for a festival.

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Each commune generally holds a festival during the year. Although the midday meal had great importance in an agricultural economy and is still the main meal in rural areas, there is a tendency for families to eat the largest meal in the evening. Breakfast is a light meal of bread, cereal, yogurt, and coffee or hot chocolate. In restaurants, it is common to have a price that includes all these courses, with a choice of dishes. Meals involve a succession of courses eaten one at a time.

A typical family meal starts with a soup, followed by vegetables and a meat dish and then a salad, cheese, and dessert. Wine is commonly served at meals. Children begin to drink wine during family dinners in their early teens, often drinking wine diluted with water. Most daily food preparation is done by wives and mothers in family settings even if both spouses work full-time.

The need to prepare wholesome meals that reflect traditional values is an increasing source of stress for working women who feel pressed for time.

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Convenience foods are becoming more prevalent, and fast food is a growing trend. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Large family gatherings and dinner parties involve more elaborate food preparation and more courses than daily family meals. At such occasions, drink is more important. Wines complement the courses. Champagne often is served to mark ceremonial occasions and is drunk after the meal.

This is followed by coffee and a digestif liqueur. It is not uncommon for ceremonial meals to last three or more hours. In Normandy, a tradition that involves having a drink of calvados after each course further lengthens the meal.

Holidays are associated with special foods. Elaborate meals are served on Christmas Eve by Catholic families who attend midnight Mass. The ceremonial nature and symbolism of food are evident in rural wedding ceremonies. Often, mixtures of food and drink are presented to the wedding couple in a chamber pot in the early hours of the morning after the wedding. These mixtures can include champagne and chocolate or savory soups with carrots and onion. These are ceremonial occasions, and each person who helps the family is given a portion of the pig.

The "thirty glorious years" of expansion of industry after World War II ended with the oil crises of the s. Since then, the country has rebuilt its economy and has one of the four leading economies in Western Europe. France is also a major agricultural nation and is self-sufficient in this sector. Agriculture now accounts for less than 3 percent of the GNP, however. The major agricultural crop is wheat. High unemployment has plagued the country since the s, particularly among youth.

The unemployment rate was almost 13 percent in Inclusion in the EU has had a major impact on the economy, opening some markets and restricting others.

InFrance will convert from the franc to the euro for all financial transactions.

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After several decades of nationalization of major industries, France deregulated those sectors in the s, to create a freer market. Land Tenure and Property. Until the middle of the twentieth century, agriculture was dominated by small holdings and family farms.

Two factors have affected rural land holdings since World War II. There has been an acceleration of the rural exodus leading to a strong migration toward cities, along with a consolidation of farm lands that had been scattered through inheritance patterns. This was called le remembrement and was more successful in some regions than in others.

There are many small businesses and shops on city streets, and street markets thrive in the major cities. In the centers of towns, small shops and specialty boutiques abound.

Prices are fixed in stores for the most part, but at markets there is still a lot of bargaining. A typical household unit may include the head of the family and his wife, their married sons and daughters-in-law with their children, and unmarried young and adult children. Romani typically marry young — often in their teens — and many marriages are arranged. Weddings are typically very elaborate, involving very large and colorful dress for the bride and her many attendants. Hospitality Typically, the Roma love opulence.

Roma women tend to wear gold jewelry and headdresses decorated with coins. Homes will often have displays of religious icons, with fresh flowers and gold and silver ornaments. These displays are considered honorable and a token of good fortune.

Sharing one's success is also considered honorable, and hosts will make a display of hospitality by offering food and gifts. Generosity is seen as an investment in the network of social relations that a family may need to rely on in troubled times. The Roma today While there are still traveling bands, most use cars and RVs to move from place to place rather than the horses and wagons of the past. Today, most Roma have settled into houses and apartments and are not readily distinguishable.

Because of continued discrimination, many do not publicly acknowledge their roots and only reveal themselves to other Roma. During the Decade of Roma Inclusion12 European countries made a commitment to eliminate discrimination against the Roma. The effort focused on education, employment, health and housing, as well as core issues of poverty, discrimination, and gender mainstreaming. However, according to the RSG, despite the initiative, Roma continue to face widespread discrimination.

Additional reporting by Reference Editor Tim Sharp. This map shows the migration of Roma people from northwest India to Europe. His daughter, Elizabeth I, accomplished the English conquest of the island.

In the early seventeenth century the English government began a policy of colonization by importing English and Scottish immigrants, a policy that often necessitated the forcible removal of the native Irish. Today's nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland has its historical roots in this period, A woman makes clones knots between the main motifs in a piece of hand-crochet.

William of Orange's victory over the Stuarts at the end of the seventeenth century led to the period of the Protestant Ascendancy, in which the civil and human rights of the native Irish, the vast majority of whom were Catholics, were repressed. By the end of the eighteenth century the cultural roots of the nation were strong, having grown through a mixture of Irish, Norse, Norman, and English language and customs, and were a product of English conquest, the forced introduction of colonists with different national backgrounds and religions, and the development of an Irish identity that was all but inseparable from Catholicism.

The long history of modern Irish revolutions began inwhen Catholic and Presbyterian leaders, influenced by the American and French Revolutions and desirous of the introduction of some measure of Irish national self-government, joined together to use force to attempt to break the link between Ireland and England. This, and subsequent rebellions in, andfailed. Ireland was made part of the United Kingdom in the Act of Union ofwhich lasted until the end of World War I —when the Irish War of Independence led to a compromise agreement between the Irish belligerents, the British government, and Northern Irish Protestants who wanted Ulster to remain part of the United Kingdom.

This compromise established the Irish Free State, which was composed of twenty-six of Ireland's thirty-two counties. The remainder became Northern Ireland, the only part of Ireland to stay in the United Kingdom, and wherein the majority population were Protestant and Unionist.

The cultural nationalism that succeeded in gaining Ireland's independence had its origin in the Catholic emancipation movement of the early nineteenth century, but it was galvanized by Anglo-Irish and other leaders who sought to use the revitalization of Irish language, sport, literature, drama, and poetry to demonstrate the cultural and historical bases of the Irish nation.

This Gaelic Revival stimulated great popular support for both the idea of the Irish nation, and for diverse groups who sought various ways of expressing this modern nationalism. The intellectual life of Ireland began to have a great impact throughout the British Isles and beyond, most notably among the Irish Diaspora who had been forced to flee the disease, starvation, and death of the Great Famine of —, when a blight destroyed the potato crop, upon which the Irish peasantry depended for food.

Estimates vary, but this famine period resulted in approximately one million dead and two million emigrants. By the end of the nineteenth century many Irish at home and abroad were committed to the peaceful attainment of "Home Rule" with a separate Irish parliament within the United Kingdom while many others were committed to the violent severing of Irish and British ties. Secret societies, forerunners of the Irish Republican Army IRAjoined with public groups, such as trade union organizations, to plan another rebellion, which took place on Easter Monday, 24 April The ruthlessness that the British government displayed in putting down this insurrection led to the wide-scale disenchantment of the Irish people with Britain.

The Irish War of Independence —followed by the Irish Civil War —ended with the creation of an independent state. While many of these people descend from emigrants of the mid- to late nineteenth century, many others are descendants of more recent Irish emigrants, while still others were born in Ireland.

These ethnic communities identify in varying degrees with Irish culture, and they are distinguished by their religion, dance, music, dress, food, and secular and religious celebrations the most famous of which is the Saint Patrick Day's parades that are held in Irish communities around the world on 17 March. While Irish immigrants often suffered from religious, ethnic, and racial bigotry in the nineteenth century, their communities today are characterized by both the resilience of their ethnic identities and the degree to which they have assimilated to host national cultures.

Ties to the "old country" remain strong. Many people of Irish descent worldwide have been active in seeking a solution to the national conflict in Northern Ireland, known as the "Troubles. In Northern Ireland the level of ethnic conflict, which is inextricably linked to the province's bifurcation of religion, nationalism, and ethnic identity, is high, and has been since the outbreak of political violence in Since there has been a shaky and intermittent cease-fire among the paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland.

The Good Friday agreement is the most recent accord. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space The public architecture of Ireland reflects the country's past role in the British Empire, as most Irish cities and towns were either designed or remodeled as Ireland evolved with Britain.

Since independence, much of the architectural iconography and symbolism, in terms of statues, monuments, museums, and landscaping, has reflected the sacrifices of those who fought for Irish freedom. Residential and business architecture is similar to that found elsewhere in the British Isles and Northern Europe. The Irish put great emphasis on nuclear families establishing residences independent of the residences of the families from which the husband and wife hail, with the intention of owning these residences; Ireland has a very high percentage of owner-occupiers.

As a result, the suburbanization of Dublin is resulting in a number of social, economic, transportation, architectural, and legal problems that Ireland must solve in the near future. The informality of Irish culture, which is one thing that Irish people believe sets them apart from British people, facilitates an open and fluid approach between people in public and private spaces.

Personal space is small and negotiable; while it is not common for Irish people to touch each other when walking or talking, there is no prohibition on public displays of emotion, affection, or attachment.

Humor, literacy, and verbal acuity are valued; sarcasm and humor are the preferred sanctions if a person transgresses the few rules that govern public social interaction. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. The Irish diet is similar to that of other Northern European nations.

There is an emphasis on the consumption of meat, cereals, bread, and potatoes at most meals. Vegetables such as cabbage, turnips, carrots, and broccoli are also popular as accompaniments to the meat and potatoes.

Traditional Irish daily eating habits, influenced by a farming ethos, involved four meals: Roasts and stews, of lamb, beef, chicken, ham, pork, and turkey, are the centerpieces of traditional meals. Fish, especially salmon, and seafood, especially prawns, are also popular meals. Until recently, most shops closed at the dinner hour between 1: These patterns, however, are changing, because of the growing importance of new lifestyles, professions, and patterns of work, as well as the increased consumption of frozen, ethnic, take-out, and processed foods.

Nevertheless, some foods such as wheaten breads, sausages, and bacon rashers and some drinks such as the national beer, Guinness, and Irish whiskey maintain their important gustatory and symbolic roles in Irish meals and socializing. Regional dishes, consisting of variants on stews, potato casseroles, and breads, also exist. The public house is an essential meeting place for all Irish communities, but these establishments traditionally seldom served dinner. In the past pubs had two separate sections, that of the bar, reserved for males, and the lounge, open to men and women.

This distinction is eroding, as are expectations of gender preference in the consumption of alcohol. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions.

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There are few ceremonial food customs. Large family gatherings often sit down to a main meal of roast chicken and ham, and turkey is becoming the preferred dish for Christmas followed by Christmas cake or plum pudding. Drinking behavior in pubs The informality of Irish culture facilitates an open and fluid approach between people in public places. Agriculture is no longer the principal economic activity.

Industry accounts for 38 percent of gross domestic product GDP and 80 percent of exports, and employs 27 percent of the workforce. During the s Ireland enjoyed annual trade surpluses, falling inflation, and increases in construction, consumer spending, and business and consumer investment. Unemployment was down from 12 percent in to around 7 percent in and emigration declined.

As ofthe labor force consisted of 1. In Ireland had the fastest growing economy in the European Union. Despite its industrialization, Ireland still is an agricultural country, which is important to its self-image and its image for tourists.

As ofonly 13 percent of its land was arable, while 68 percent was devoted to permanent pastures. While all Irish food producers consume a modest amount of their product, agriculture and fishing are modern, mechanized, and commercial enterprises, with the vast bulk of production going to the national and international markets.

Although the image of the small-holding subsistence farmer persists in art, literary, and academic circles, Irish farming and farmers are as advanced in technology and technique as most of their European neighbors.

Poverty persists, however, among farmers with small holdings, on poor land, particularly in many parts of the west and south. These farmers, who to survive must rely more on subsistence crops and mixed farming than do their more commercial neighbors, involve all family members in a variety of economic strategies. These activities include off-farm wage labor and the acquisition of state pensions and unemployment benefits "the dole".

Land Tenure and Property. Ireland was one of the first countries in Europe in which peasants could purchase their landholdings. Today all but a very few farms are family-owned, although some mountain pasture and bog lands are held in common. Cooperatives are principally production and marketing enterprises. An annually changing proportion of pasture and arable land is leased out each year, usually for an eleven-month period, in a traditional system known as conacre.

The main industries are food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, and pharmaceuticals, and Ireland is fast becoming known for its roles in the development and design of information technologies and financial support services. In agriculture the main products are meat and dairy, potatoes, sugar beets, barley, wheat, and turnips. The fishing industry concentrates on cod, haddock, herring, mackerel, and shellfish crab and lobster.

Ireland had a consistent trade surplus at the end of the s. In farming, daily and seasonal tasks are divided according to age and gender. Most public activities that deal with farm production are handled by adult males, although some agricultural production associated with the domestic household, such as eggs and honey, are marketed by adult females. Neighbors often help each other with their labor or equipment when seasonal production demands, and this network of local support is sustained through ties of marriage, religion and church, education, political party, and sports.

While in the past most blue-collar and wage-labor jobs were held by males, women have increasingly entered the workforce over the last generation, especially in tourism, sales, and information and financial services.

Wages and salaries are consistently lower for women, and employment in the tourism industry is often seasonal or temporary. There are very few legal age or gender restrictions to entering professions, but here too men dominate in numbers if not also in influence and control.

Roma Culture: Customs, Traditions & Beliefs

Irish economic policy has encouraged foreign-owned businesses, as one way to inject capital into underdeveloped parts of the country. Social Stratification Classes and Castes. The Irish often perceive that their culture is set off from their neighbors by its egalitarianism, reciprocity, and informality, wherein strangers do not wait for introductions to converse, the first name is quickly adopted in business and professional discourse, and the sharing of food, tools, and other valuables is commonplace.

These leveling mechanisms alleviate many pressures engendered by class relations, and often belie rather strong divisions of status, prestige, class, and national identity. While the rigid class structure for which the English are renowned is largely absent, social and economic class distinctions exist, and are often reproduced through educational and religious institutions, and the professions.

The old British and Anglo-Irish aristocracy are small in number and relatively powerless. They have been replaced at the apex of Irish society by the wealthy, many of whom have made their fortunes in business and professions, and by celebrities from the arts and sports worlds. Social classes are discussed in terms of working class, middle class, and gentry, with certain occupations, such as farmers, often categorized according to their wealth, such as large and small farmers, grouped according to the size of their landholding and capital.

The social boundaries between these groups are often indistinct and permeable, but their basic dimensions are clearly discernible to locals through dress, language, conspicuous consumption, leisure activities, social networks, and occupation and profession. Relative wealth and social class also influence life choices, perhaps the most important being that of primary and secondary school, and university, which in turn affects one's class mobility.

Some minority groups, such as Travellers, are often portrayed in popular culture as being outside or beneath the accepted social class system, making escape from the underclass as difficult for them as for the long-term unemployed of the inner cities.