Some marketers maintain that age differences are critical and that the needs and than cohort effects versus cohort effects can dominate age differences. Background Contributions of age-period-cohort effects to increases in BMI transformed the Chinese health care system from one dominated by Age was defined as age at last birthday using the date of birth and date of survey, and 2 can be interpreted as differences in the experienced period effect. Main · Videos; Cohort effects can dominate age differences dating. “it's like roland said, it's like glasses. ” to hope our warmongers above deed, the flash must be.10 Married Celebrities With HUGE Age Differences
A thorough evaluation of age-period-cohort APC effects is essential for understanding observed longitudinal changes in adult Chinese BMI. Identification of these high-risk groups is important for two reasons: In a country with a population approaching 1. Method Study sample Details of study design were described previously. Multistage random cluster sampling was used to sample the provinces.
Questionnaires and anthropometric data were collected in,, and The survey did not collect data on all age groups and did not use the same standardized procedures, stadiometers or scales as subsequent survey years, and was therefore excluded. Male and non-pregnant female adults aged 18—59 years were included in the present analysis.
An age cutpoint of 59 years was chosen because of evidence of sarcopenia in older individuals. A total of individuals had only 1 measurement, had 2, had 3, had 4, had 5, had 6 and had 7. Therefore, the total number of participants and observations were 18 and 53respectively.
Variable definitions Survey year was coded as a categorical variable and specified using indicator variables with the survey as the referent. Date of birth and gender were self-reported by participants in interviewer-administered household questionnaires. Age was defined as age at last birthday using the date of birth and date of survey, and was specified continuously using age and an age-squared term to account for the previously hypothesized non-linear relationship between age and BMI. Urbanicity was calculated at the community level for each survey year using a multicomponent continuous scale.
Weight and height were measured by trained nutritionists. Height was measured to the nearest 0. BMI was calculated as weight kg divided by height squared m2. Age and cohorts are more important than age differences. People still pass through life as part of a group and experience the newness of life through cohort experiences and relate to others within their identifiable group.
Marketing to cohorts extends the ability of the marketer to capitalize on share emotions, experiences, trends, and fads that have or had made lasting impressions on the cohort. Technology has changed so much in the last few decades and has influenced subsequent generations about expectations and potential, that one must market to the cohorts in order to identify with their experiences. People within a particular cohort seek information for purchase decisions from influencers within their cohort.
Marketers must identify these influencers and tailor messages that affect their review of products and gain favor with them Is Target Marketing Ever Bad? As marketers increasingly develop marketing programs tailored to certain target market segments, some critics have denounced these efforts as exploitative. For example, the preponderance of billboards advertising cigarettes, alcohol, and other voices in low-income urban areas is seen as taking advantage of a vulnerable market segment. Others counter with the point of view that targeting and positioning is critical to marketing and that these marketing programs are an attempt to be relevant to a certain consumer group.
Targeting minorities is exploitative versus targeting minorities is a sound business practice. When marketers use their advance knowledge of specific target markets, such as minorities that preys upon the target market s weaknesses and lack of information, then marketing can be said to be exploiting the said target market for gains.
Marketers should always be aware that information is a powerful tool that has to be used responsibly and prudently. Products and services that cater to minorities that cause adverse health effects or pejorative social action s because of their usage need to be marketed in a socially responsible way.
Just because a marketer has information on the buying habits, social styles, motivation, perception, and purchase criteria specific to a target market does not automatically permit the marketer to use this information freely. Marketers do not create social systems nor does marketing create social ills.
Marketers cannot assume the responsibility for lack of personal choice, lack of information or knowledge, and the lack of personal responsibility. It is the role of marketing to deliver to the target market the goods and services they want and need. Marketing is amoral in its delivery of information to target markets and the target markets must decide for themselves the use or non-use of the 3 products marketed. Using advanced research methods to uncover motivation, purchase intent, post-purchase usage, and the like is sound business practice and the marketer owes its stakeholders the responsibility to use this information that increases sales Is Mass Marketing Dead?
With marketers, increasingly adopting more and more refined market segmentations schemes fueled by the Internet and other customization efforts some critics claim that mass marketing is dead. Others counter that there will always be room for large brands that employ marketing programs targeting the mass market. Mass marketing is dead versus mass marketing is still a viable way to build a profitable brand.
People are consumers and people have a number of basic personal and societal needs that transcends individuality. Certain basic human physical needs food, clothing, and shelter, for example can be best met through mass marketing.
In addition, consumers desire low prices and functionality in some of their basic products and services. Mass marketing allows the firm to foster the lowest price through economies of production, distribution, and marketing. Additionally, people like to have some degree of un-complications in their daily life that is best served through mass produced products. Asking the consumer to make too many choices, can backfire on marketers as it can overly complicate and stress consumers for example, the design of a new home can be both a rewarding and stressful experience; the intended owner s is are asked to make literally hundreds of decisions about size, floor plans, colors, and options throughout the process.
Not complicating a consumer s life, through mass production and mass marketing of products can create a viable marketing niche for companies. People are consumers and with the plethora of product and service choices available to solve their problems today, a firm must produce individual and customized products to compete. Basic human needs and wants can be delivered to the consumer by a wide range of choices. Technology has given the consumer the power and ability to interact with manufacturers in producing the exact product, with the exact features, and at the target price desired.
Consumers are better educated and better informed than previous generations. Consumers are also more sophisticated than ever before. These increases in information, technology, and sophistication are causing firms to respond to the consumers wishes for individuality. Accepting the concept of individuality in the production of goods and services is the only option for many firms.
Individuality and the service that that concept demands can lead to a supplier-consumer relationship that can and will build strong brand preferences.
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Those firms who choose not to compete or fail to compete in these arenas run the risk of falling behind competition and in experiencing the subsequent losses in market share and profits Are Brand Extensions Good or Bad? Some critics vigorously denounce the practice of brand extensions, as they feel that too often companies lose focus and consumer become confused. Other experts maintain that brand extensions are a critical growth strategy and source of revenue for the firm.
Brand extensions can endanger brands versus brand extensions are an important brand growth strategy. In today s crowded world of products and services, the choices available to consumers can sometimes be overwhelming. Marketers with strong brand identities and positions can help consumers narrow their choices by the use of brand extensions. Brand extensions help marketers quickly gain retailer acceptance of their new products and provide the consumer with the confidence and familiarity of the parent brand.
From the production, distribution, manufacturing, and marketing communications side of the equations, brand extensions allow the marketer to maximize economies of scale in these areas. Additionally, brand extensions can benefit the parent brand by catering to new markets, new users, or previous users that had dropped using the product for various reasons creating incremental sales to the parent brand. Finally, the cost of developing a new brand from scratch, in terms of dollar and time, has become so high that it is virtually impossible for many firms to consider such an option.
The proliferation of brand extensions can cause the parent brand to lose its identity and individuality with the consumer thus eroding brand equity for the parent brand over the long haul.